New Horizons

Welcome to my blog

My name is Sven Andersson and I
work as a consultant in embedded
system design, implemented in ASIC
and FPGA.
In my spare time I write this blog
and I hope it will inspire others to
learn more about this fantastic field.
I live in Stockholm Sweden and have
my own company


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New Horizons
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Zynq Design From Scratch
Started February 2014
1 Introduction
Changes and updates
2 Zynq-7000 All Programmable SoC
3 ZedBoard and other boards
4 Computer platform and VirtualBox
5 Installing Ubuntu
6 Fixing Ubuntu
7 Installing Vivado
8 Starting Vivado
9 Using Vivado
10 Lab 1. Create a Zynq project
11 Lab 1. Build a hardware platform
12 Lab 1. Create a software application
13 Lab 1. Connect to ZedBoard
14 Lab 1. Run a software application
15 Lab 1. Benchmarking ARM Cortex-A9
16 Lab 2. Adding a GPIO peripheral
17 Lab 2. Create a custom HDL module
18 Lab 2. Connect package pins and implement
19 Lab 2. Create a software application and configure the PL
20 Lab 2. Debugging a software application
21 Running Linux from SD card
22 Installing PetaLinux
23 Booting PetaLinux
24 Connect to ZedBoad via ethernet
25 Rebuilding the PetaLinux kernel image
26 Running a DHCP server on the host
27 Running a TFTP server on the host
28 PetaLinux boot via U-boot
29 PetaLinux application development
30 Fixing the host computer
31 Running NFS servers
32 VirtualBox seamless mode
33 Mounting guest file system using sshfs
34 PetaLinux. Setting up a web server
35 PetaLinux. Using cgi scripts
36 PetaLinux. Web enabled application
37 Convert from VirtualBox to VMware
38 Running Linaro Ubuntu on ZedBoard
39 Running Android on ZedBoard
40 Lab2. Booting from SD card and SPI flash
41 Lab2. PetaLinux board bringup
42 Lab2. Writing userspace IO device driver
43 Lab2. Hardware debugging
44 MicroZed quick start
45 Installing Vivado 2014.1
46 Lab3. Adding push buttons to our Zynq system
47 Lab3. Adding an interrupt service routine
48 Installing Ubuntu 14.04
49 Installing Vivado and Petalinux 2014.2
50 Using Vivado 2014.2
51 Upgrading to Ubuntu 14.04
52 Using Petalinux 2014.2
53 Booting from SD card and SPI flash
54 Booting Petalinux 2014.2 from SD card
55 Booting Petalinux 2014.2 from SPI flash
56 Installing Vivado 2014.3

Chipotle Verification System

EE Times Retrospective Series
It all started more than 40 years ago
My first job as an electrical engineer
The Memory (R)evolution
The Microprocessor (R)evolution

Four soft-core processors
Started January 2012
Table of contents
OpenRISC 1200
Nios II

Using the Spartan-6 LX9 MicroBoard
Started August 2011
Table of contents
Problems, fixes and solutions

FPGA Design From Scratch
Started December 2006
Table of contents
Acronyms and abbreviations

Actel FPGA design
Designing with an Actel FPGA. Part 1
Designing with an Actel FPGA. Part 2
Designing with an Actel FPGA. Part 3
Designing with an Actel FPGA. Part 4
Designing with an Actel FPGA. Part 5

A hardware designer's best friend
Zoo Design Platform

Installing Cobra Command Tool
A processor benchmark

Porting a Unix program to Mac OS X
Fixing a HyperTerminal in Mac OS X
A dream come true

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Kittelfjall Lappland

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Skating on thin ice

100 Power Tips for FPGA Designers

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Sunday, April 15, 2007
FPGA design from scratch. Part 18
Putting together a system simulation environment

This is probably the hardest part in our FPGA design from scratch journey. We have to do this job outside the Xilinx design environment and we can't expect much help from ISE or XPS.

  • Cadence Incisive Unified Simulator (IUS58) will be used
  • The Mongoose Simulation Environment will be used to define the simulation setup
  • All IP blocks are or will be compiled and storied in a simulation database
  • All wrapper files and the top entity files will be compiled and stored in the database
  • The verilog testbench template will be generated by the Topi Top Code Generator
  • We have to find a verilog or VHDL model for the external SDRAM
To find out more about the Mongoose and Topi programs read the Zoo Design Platform documentation. Before we start let's see what help we can get from the Xilinx design flow. We will take a look in the EDK 9.1i Concepts, Tools and Techniques Guide, part 3 Introduction to Simulation in XPS.

Simulation database

All IP blocks, macro libraries, wrapper files and testbench files are compiled and stored in the simulation library. When we ran the program compedklib all Xilinx IPs and Xilinx macro libraries were compiled. See Part 13 (Compiling everything) for information on how to compile the EDK libraries. Here is a view of the simulation database:

 Library Name
 Directory Path
unisim ../database/macrolib/unisim Unit delay macro library
Timing simulation macro library
Xilinx Core Functions
edklib ../database/edklib/ip_name Xilinx EDK IPs
userlib ../database/userlib/user_ip_name User IPs
top ../database/top_design Top entity, IP wrappers

The cds.lib file

The mapping of library names to physical file locations is done in the cds.lib file which must be referenced in the NCsim compile script. When we compiled the simulation libraries using compedklib this cds.lib was generated for us. This file contains all the available IPs and is overkill for us. Let's find out exactly which libraries we need and remove the unused ones. We will open the wrapper files and look for used libraries:

 Wrapper file
 Libarary Name
Design Document
clk90_inv_wrapper.vhd util_vector_logic_v1_00_a
dcm_0_wrapper.vhd dcm_module_v1_00_b
dcm_1_wrapper.vhd dcm_module_v1_00_bdcm_module.pdf
ddr_clk90_inv_wrapper.vhd util_vector_logic_v1_00_a
ddr_sdram_64mx32_wrapper.vhd opb_ddr_v2_00_copb_ddr.pdf
debug_module_wrapper.vhd opb_mdm_v2_00_aopb_mdm.pdf
dlmb_cntlr_wrapper.vhd  lmb_bram_if_cntlr_v2_00_a
dlmb_wrapper.vhd lmb_v10_v1_00_a
ilmb_cntlr_wrapper.vhd lmb_bram_if_cntlr_v2_00_a





After removing all unused libraries our cds.lib file looks like this.

Compiling the ETC IP

From now on we will use the Mongoose simulation environment for our simulation setup. Here everything is setup to compile the Embedded Test Controller IP block. ETC_block_verilog_v1_00_a.def contains all the Verilog HDL files defining the ETC.

Here is the compilation script generated from Mongoose.

/* Ncvlog compilation control file generated from Mongoose 15.5 */
/* Generation date :  2007-04-15                                */
/* Generation time :  14:11:52                                  */

-cdslib /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/simSetup/ncsim/cds_system.lib
-hdlvar /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/simSetup/ncsim/hdl.var
-work etc_v1_00_a
-file /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/designDefine/rtl/SYSTEM/etc/ETC_block_verilog_v1_00_a.def
-logfile /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/log/ETC_block_verilog_v1_00_a.clog

This is the printout from the compilation.

The following line in the cds.lib file defines the name and the location of the compilation database.
define etc_v1_00_a  /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/database/ncsim/userlib/etc_v1_00_a
Compiling the block RAM

During the HDL generation a bram VHDL model (lmb_bram_elaborate.vhd) has been generated and stored in the directory: ../xps/hdl/elaborate/lmb_bram_elaborate_v1_00_a/hdl/vhdl. We will compile this model and store it in the simulation database:  $ETC_VERIFICATION/database/ncsim/userlib/lmb_bram_elaborate_v1_00_a using the library name

Compiling Verilog wrappers

The ETC_system_verilog_v1_00_a.def contains all the Verilog wrappers. In our case only the ETC wrapper.

When compiling Verilog code you almost every time get a message telling you that some modules are missing timescale directives. The easiest way to fix this problem is to have a separate timescale file only containing a timescale directive. Like this: timescale 1ns/10ps. I call this file timescale.v and put it as the first file in the Verilog compile script.

Compiling VHDL wrappers

The ETC_system_vhdl_v1_00_a.def contains all the VHDL wrappers and the top entity.

This line in the cds.lib file defines the name and the location of the wrapper simulation database:

define top   /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/database/ncsim/top_design

Elaborating the design

We have now compiled the whole design and are ready to elaborate. Here is the elaboration script generated from Mongoose:

/* NCSIM elaboration control file generated from Mongoose 15.5       */
/* Generation date :  2007-04-22                                     */
/* Generation time :  04:57:52                                       */

-cdslib /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/simSetup/ncsim/cds_system.lib
-hdlvar /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/simSetup/ncsim/hdl.var
-logfile /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/log/ETC_system_vhdl_v1_00_a.elog
-access +rwc

Here is the result from the elaboration.

Warning messages

During the elaboration phase you will probably see a lot of warnings displayed in the terminal window. For example:

ncelab: *W,CUDEFB: default binding occurred for component instance (:ETC_system(STRUCTURE):etc_0) with verilog module (top.etc_0_wrapper:module).


ncelab: *W,CUNOTB: component instance is not fully bound (:ETC_system(STRUCTURE):iobuf_47) [File:ETC_system.vhd, Line:2075]

To find out more about these warnings we can execute the following commands:

==> nchelp ncelab CUDEFB

nchelp: 05.83-p003: (c) Copyright 1995-2006 Cadence Design Systems, Inc.
ncelab/CUDEFB =
    No explicit binding mechanism was found for the component instance
    in the form of a configuration specification or a component
    declaration. Default binding occurred with an entity having a
    visible entity declaration which had the same simple name as that
    of the instantiated component.

I do remember overhearing something about this particular message.  Default binding is a perfectly normal thing to
do, and is standard VHDL. However, some customer was trying to use a methodology of requiring explicit binding for
everything. To enforce this, they wanted a warning produced whenever default binding was used instead. As a result,
everyone else has to put up with a bunch of warnings that they didn't care about.

I think we can ignore this warning. We will add this line to the elaboration script: -nowarn CUDEFB

==> nchelp ncelab CUNOTB

nchelp: 05.83-p003: (c) Copyright 1995-2006 Cadence Design Systems, Inc.
ncelab/CUNOTB =
    The (hierarchically) named component instance was not bound
    to an entity declaration along with a corresponding
    architecture body []. When this occurs, the component
    instantiation statement designated by the label in the
    hierarchical name shown has no effect [12.4.3]. This may have
    been due to a non-successful search through the binding search
    order. Following is the search order for all default bindings
    1) A design unit made visible with a USE clause visible to
       the architecture instantiating the component.
    2) A design unit made visible with a USE clause visible to
       the entity of the architecture instantiating the component.
    3) A design unit available in the library to which the
       component was compiled.
    4) A design unit in the WORK library.
    One of the above rules must provide for an entity to which the
    instance can be bound. Using other options to expand the search
    for default bindings can impact the ncelab performance. The user
    may first want to try modifying the design so that an entity can
    be found using the above stated rules. In most cases, it would
    imply adding appropriate USE clauses or compiling components into
    the same library to which the corresponding entity has been

This warning is a more serious one. We have things missing in our design. Here is the
elaboration log file. We have to get rid of these warnings before we can continue.

I will ask Xilinx for help by creating a
WebCase. The answer from Xilinx came the next day and was a reference  to the Answer Database #19446. In that example they used the option -lib_binding to ncelab. That was the answer to my problems.

Using the -lib_binding and -relax options

n the NC-VHDL Simulator Help manual we can read the following:

By default, the elaborator adheres to a strict interpretation of the VHDL LRM, which states that you must use LIBRARY statements with corresponding USE clauses in the source code to provide visibility to the declarative region that an unbound instance resides in. To bind component instances to compiled design units in the libraries, the elaborator:
  1. Uses explicit binding indications
  2. If there is no explicit binding indication, the elaborator tries to bind the component to in order:
  • A design unit made visable with a USE clause given to the architecture instantiating the component.
  • A design unit made visable with a USE clause given to the entity of the architecture instantiating the component.
  • A design unit available in the library into whjich the component was compiled.
  • A design unit in the work library
If a binding cannot be found, the elaborator generates an error (unbound ...).

To extend the binding rules there are two options we can use:

We will use the -relax option which extends the set of binding rules with the following rules:
  1. A design unit made visable with a LIBRARY clause given to the architecture instantiating the component (no corresponding USE clause).
  2. A design unit made visable with a LIBRARY clause given to the entity of the architecture instantiating the component (no corresponding USE clause)
  3. A design unit in a library defined in the cds.lib file. If a binding has not been found the elaborator opens the cds.lib file and searches all of the libraries that are defined.

Specify the timescale precision for VHDL

According to the IEEE 1076-1993 VHDL Language Reference Manual (Section, the primary unit of type TIME (1 femtosecond) is, by default, the resolution limit for type TIME. All simulations run in femtoseconds by default. Use the -vhdl_time_precision option to specify a secondary unit of type TIME as the resolution limit. Setting the timing resolution to a coarser value may increase simulation performance, as the simulator will not default to femtoseconds. We will use 1ps as our timing resolution.

-vhdl_time_precision 1ps

The modified elaboration script

/* NCSIM elaboration control file generated from Mongoose 15.5       */
/* Generation date :  2007-04-23                                     */
/* Generation time :  04:57:52                                       */

-cdslib /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/simSetup/ncsim/cds_system.lib
-hdlvar /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/simSetup/ncsim/hdl.var
-logfile /home/svenand/root/projects/ETC/verification/log/ETC_system_vhdl_v1_00_a.elog
-vhdl_time_precision 1ps
-access +rwc

Here is the elaboration  log file. No errors. Great news.

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